Since the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD there has been a succession of Orthodox patriarchs of the Chalcedonian faith.
The position of the Greek Church, which was established by 1533, explains how the community of the local church came to be called “Greek Orthodox”. In the 15th century the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem established the “Brotherhood of the Holy Sepulchre” dedicated to protecting the Holy Places: the presence of the overlapping letters OT, Hàghios Tàphos (Holy Places) indicates those places in the church where the Greek presence has left its mark.
Within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which the Greek Orthodox call the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis), the Patriarch has his own cathedral located in the large area of the Katholikon.
For Orthodox throughout the world, the most evocative and anticipated religious ceremony takes place in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where on Easter Saturday thousands of faithful wait for the Greek Patriarch who, after having prayed in the Edicule of the Tomb, emerges with two bundles of candles so that the Holy Fire may be distributed to all.
The Orthodox Church celebrates its prayers, services and holidays according to the Byzantine tradition and following the Julian calendar.